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Новость28 July 2021, 14:49
Коллаж: Ксения Тельманова

Contents:

Introduction

Key conclusions

1. From Soviet «disenfranchised» to Russian ones: history of the deprivation of the electoral rights

2. The problem of the validity and proportionality of the restriction of electoral rights

3. List of grounds for deprivation of the passive electoral right and estimate of the number of convicts for 10 years

3.1 Additional citizenship or foreign residence permit

3.2 Campaigning with extremism or inciting discord in speeches, materials, campaigning

3.3 The existence of a criminal sentence that has entered into force (even after the withdrawal or expiration of a criminal record)

3.4 Administrative prosecution

4. List of Russian politicians who are deprived or may be deprived of the passive electoral right

4.1 "Red Zone" (deprived of the passive electoral right)

4.2 "Yellow Zone" (at the risk to be deprived of the passive electoral right)

Introduction

On May 26, 2021, the State Duma of Russia adopted a law depriving the right to be elected for citizens, who will be considered involved in any way in the activities of organizations recognized as "extremist" or "terrorist" by the Russian authorities. First of all, this will affect supporters of politician Alexei Navalny, whose structures on June 9, 2021, were recognized as extremist organizations by the court (and should be liquidated). These amendments became the fourth after the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of Russia in a wave of additional legislative restrictions on the passive electoral rights, in addition to those provided for in Art. 32 of the Basic Law (recognition of incapacity by the court and being in places of detention by a court verdict).

A year earlier, on May 13, 2020, the State Duma of Russia in a hurry introduced other bans for citizens who want to be elected. This affected many crimes of medium severity, including suspended sentences. They included not only citizens convicted of crimes against the person, but also convicted on "political" articles (such as "public dissemination of knowingly false socially significant information", "repeated violation of the rules for organizing a protest", "public calls for extremism", "calls for separatism", "extremism", "violence against an authorities representative"), as well as widely used entrepreneurial ("fraud," "misappropriation") and narcotic drugs articles. In total, about fifty new component elements of a crime were introduced.

The Golos movement initially assumed that the adoption of the 2020 amendments to the Constitution would lead to a wave of cases (including fabricated ones), the result of which would be the inadmissibility of a number of oppose politicians for the 2021 elections.

This report is devoted to assessing the extent to which the existing grounds for depriving citizens of the passive electoral right is applied.

The first part of the report examines the history of restricting the electoral rights of citizens in our country - from Soviet "disenfranchised" to modern ones.

The second part is devoted to assessing the proportionality and validity of the deprivation of the passive electoral right to those crimes for which citizens were convicted.

The third part contains a list of grounds on which a citizen is deprived of the right to be elected, and an estimate of the number of convicts for these elements of crime over the past ten years (we had analyzed more than 400 criminal and administrative component elements of a crime, we had used statistics from the Judicial Department at the Supreme Court of Russia to estimate the number of persons prosecuted and administrative responsibility). At the same time, it should be remembered that in some cases citizens are deprived of the right to be elected for another 25 years after serving their sentence (for example, under extremely serious articles, a citizen remains deprived of passive electoral right for the entire period until his criminal record is considered extinguished or withdrawn (up to 10 years) and another 15 years after expiry or withdrawal). That is, the real number of "disenfranchised" under these articles can be significantly higher.

At the same time, it is obvious that not everyone who is deprived of the passive electoral right, in reality, has political ambitions. The fourth part of the report, therefore, contains a list of those who are currently deprived of the passive electoral right or who may face it in the near future because of pressure already exerted. This list includes citizens who meet two criteria. Firstly, in recent years, they have confirmed the presence of political ambitions - these are current deputies of different levels or former candidates for elected posts, heads of regional branches of parties or political projects (Navalny Headquarters*, Open Russia branches**, etc.). Secondly, they have already been deprived of the passive electoral right, or a criminal case has been opened against them, which can lead to such consequences. Secondly, they have already been deprived of the passive electoral right, or a criminal case has been opened against them, which can lead to such consequences. This includes those to whom administrative protocols under "protest" or "anti-extremist" articles had been drawn up, which can also potentially lead to the deprivation of the passive electoral right. This list includes only those politicians against whom the threat of deprivation of The passive electoral right arose after the adoption of the amendments to the Constitution on May 23, 2020. Therefore, for example, it does not have the politician Alexei Navalny, who lost the opportunity to run for election much earlier.

This list of Russian politicians deprived or threatened with deprivation of the passive electoral right is based on data collected only from open sources. Therefore, it cannot be considered exhaustive - it can be replenished.

Key conclusions

  1. It is impossible to calculate the exact number of citizens who have so far been deprived of the passive electoral right. However, grounded on the authorities' information, it can be confirmed that the total number of citizens to whom the state prohibits running for election is at least 9 million people, which is about 8% of the total number of voters (most likely - significantly more). The entry into force of new "anti-extremist" amendments and the recognition of the supporters' structures of Alexei Navalny by extremist organizations lead to the fact that several hundred thousand more politically active citizens may be deprived in the near future.
  2. Compared to 2016, when the previous elections of deputies of the State Duma of Russia were held, the situation with the right of citizens to be elected has significantly worsened. Since then, there have already been two waves of restrictions on passive suffrage: in 2020, fifty new criminal component elements were introduced, according to which citizens are deprived of the passive electoral right, and in June 2021 there were entered into force amendments that deprive the right to be elected of persons "involved" in the activities of organizations that were recognized as "extremist". In total, since the collapse of the USSR, this is the fourth wave of an offensive on the electoral rights of citizens (the first was in 2006 - 2007, the second one in 2012 - 2014).
  3. The largest category of modern "disenfranchised" are citizens with second citizenship or foreign residence permit. According to some estimates, their number may exceed 6 million people. Among the most common categories of "disenfranchised" are also convicted under the widely used narcotic drug article (Article 228 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), which most often appears among fabricated cases (the most sensational case in recent years is the "Golunov case", also Petersburg deputy Maxim Reznik was detained under this article on June 17, 2021). More than 300 thousand people were convicted under it from 2010 to 2020, and the number of persons deprived of the rights at the moment should be significantly higher since the restrictions can apply for a long period after serving the sentence (up to 18 years after release, that is, those convicted back in the 1990s may be deprived of suffrage).
  4. The number of convicts under traditionally "political" articles is not so large. However, these particular articles are used to bring to responsibility thousands of political activists, protesters, volunteers of political headquarters, etc., that is, the most politically active citizens of the country. Thus, 3,363 people were convicted under "extremist" criminal articles over ten years. Statistics on similar administrative articles are more impressive - only in 2020, 4096 people were convicted for the production or distribution of extremist materials, as well as for the propaganda or public demonstration of extremist symbols. Given the new "anti-extremist" amendments, this number may soon grow many times. 
  5. Potentially, about 10 thousand people who have been brought to administrative responsibility under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation for organizing or participating in unauthorized protests may become in a risky situation. A feature of that article is that, with numerous recurrences, it can become prejudice to criminal Art. 212.1 ("Dadin’s" article), which leads to the deprivation of the passive electoral right, for example, as happened with the Moscow municipal deputy Yulia Galyamina.
  6. Repressive legal norms are actively used to limit the current politicians' participation in elections. Only from the end of May 2020, Golos identified six politicians who became "disenfranchised" (ex-coordinator of the Navalny Headquarter* in the Arkhangelsk Oblast Andrei Borovikov; Moscow municipal deputy, organizer of the Zemsky Congress Yulia Galyamina; former deputy of the City Council of Vologda Yevgeny Domozhirov; the leader of the "For New Socialism" movement Nikolai Platoshkin; deputies of regional parliaments communist Yuri Yukhnevich from the Tyumen Oblast and member LDPR Anton Mirbaldaev from the Mari El Republic). In addition, the list of those potentially threatened by such a prospect includes another 75 people from different regions of the country. There is no doubt that some of them, due to such pressure, either refused to run in the upcoming elections or significantly reduced their political ambitions, running at a lower level than they could.
  7. Continuous expansion beyond the grounds established by the Russian Constitution for depriving citizens of the passive electoral right, the haste of the taking measures, the absence of any justification for their need and rationality, as well as the practice of using the new provisions of the law for repression of political opponents of the authorities is only slightly inferior to the methods of the Bolsheviks who during the period of the establishment and strengthening of the Soviet regime, did not tolerate their political opponents and any opposition. Formally, the current electoral legislation in terms of the number of grounds for depriving the passive electoral right and the number of persons affected by these restrictions at the moment in its repression level already exceeds Soviet laws, starting at least from 1961, when the defeat in political rights in the Criminal Code of the USSR was abolished as an additional punishment.
  8. Deprivation of the passive electoral right in Russia occurs automatically, acts unconditionally according to the maximum terms, and cannot be reduced. The European Court of Human Rights considers such an undifferentiated deprivation of the electoral rights of a group of persons to be incompatible with article 3 of Protocol No.1 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

1. From Soviet «disenfranchised» to Russian ones: history of the deprivation of the electoral rights

The tradition of political opponents' disenfranchisement in Russia has deep historical roots. The Bolsheviks actively used this instrument of power consolidation during the transitional period of the formation of the Soviet regime, when control over the political system was not yet total - the results of the annual elections to rural and city councils throughout the 1920s caused dissatisfaction with the current authorities. The constitutions of the RSFSR of 1918 and 1925 deprived the right to elect and be elected of entire "class alien" groups of citizens: from entrepreneurs to former gendarmes. In 1926, more than 1 million people (out of 147 million citizens of the country) were deprived of passive electoral right, and by 1929, this figure had increased to 3.7 million people. Deprival of rights was an additional measure to criminal punishment. 

By the mid-1930s, the regime had gained stability, and in 1936, they no longer included a provision on the deprivation of electoral rights on a "class basis" in the new Stalin's constitution. In the Criminal Code of the 1930s-1950s, the deprival of political rights was considered as an additional punishment not related to imprisonment, and could not exceed five years. Moreover, in 1961, the deprival of political rights as an additional punishment was completely abolished.

The 1993 Constitution of Russia, adopted after the collapse of the USSR, provides only two grounds for the deprivation of passive electoral right: the recognition of a citizen as an incapable by a court, as well as being in detention facilities by a court verdict (part 3 of article 32). However, despite the fact that the Constitution establishes a completely specific and closed list as the basis for restrictions on the passive electoral right, in the mid-2000s the practice of depriving of the passive electoral right began to recover in Russia. The last waves of the offensive on the right of citizens to be elected, as in Soviet times, are obviously politically conditioned.

Against objections to the contradiction of the new norms the Constitution the Constitutional Court of Russia in 2013 stated, that this norm of the Constitution could not be interpreted as excluding the possibility of additional restriction of the passive electoral right by federal law. The Court believes that this ban is specifically allocated by the constitutional legislator due to its special importance (The Constitutional Court Decision of October 10, 2013 No. 20-P).

Since the adoption of the current Constitution of Russia in 1993, which proclaimed the principles of republicanism and democratic and law based state, the easing, instead of tightening, of restrictions on the passive electoral right, occurred only once. In 2013, the Court declared unconstitutional the previously imposed life deprivation of the passive electoral right of citizens who have ever been sentenced to imprisonment for committing serious and (or) extremely serious crimes (The Constitutional Court Decision of October 10, 2013 No. 20-P). Otherwise, there was being only a tightening of restrictions.

By now, as a result of four post-Soviet waves of offensive on citizens' electoral rights, there a number of reasons why do Russians have become "disenfranchised". They:

  1. have a foreign nationality or residence permit;
  2. are defendants of court decisions that have entered into force, which establish the fact of agitation with extremist appeals, inciting discord, propagating exclusivity, as well as the use of Nazi symbols;
  3. sentenced to imprisonment for committing serious crimes under 254 articles, — until ten years from the date of withdrawal or expiration of the criminal record;
  4. sentenced to imprisonment for the commission of extremely serious crimes under 111 articles, — until fifteen years from the date of withdrawal or expiration of the criminal record;
  5. sentenced to imprisonment for committing crimes of medium gravity under 50 articles  and having an criminal history on record for these crimes on the election day, — until five years from the date of withdrawal or expiration of the criminal record;
  6. were held administratively liable for the production and distribution of extremist materials;
  7. are involved in the activities of an organization recognized as extremist or terrorist, — until five years from the date of recognition for the leaders and three years for the involved persons.

It is impossible to calculate the exact number of citizens who fell under the deprivation of the passive electoral right from all groups of "disenfranchised". However, according to authorities, it can be stated that the total number of citizens who are currently prohibited running for election is at least 9 million people, which is about 8% of the total number of voters (see below).

This figure does not include those people who may be deprived of voting rights after the adoption of a new law banning persons involved in the activities of organizations recognized as extremist or terrorist, and the recognition as such Alexei Navalny supporters' structures. The number of such persons is still impossible to predict, but potentially this is at least about dozens, if not hundreds of thousands of politically active citizens due to the very expanded wording of "involvement" - even support around the web or donations made before the organization was banned can be considered as it. Although "involvement" in such an organization should be established by the court, the law does not specify a certain procedure. Experts of the Sova center for information and analysis, which specializes in monitoring the problems of extremism, nationalism, and political radicalism, note the existence of danger that such court decisions will be considered as decisions of any case. As a result, restrictions can apply to all people who will be mentioned in the judgment case summary of banning the organization or some other decisions related to it. Perhaps "the involvement" to a banned organization "will be confirmed by judicial decisions made not under "extremist" articles, in which the circumstance of the commission of an offense or crime will be mentioned, that the defendant supported the prohibited organization, for example, through oral or written mention in a positive manner of its political actions, in connection with the preparation or implementation of which it was prohibited, or participated in similar to those mentioned in the banning the organization actions’ decision."

It can be said that in 2021 the Russian electoral legislation returned to the early Soviet models when the Bolsheviks consolidated their power by using deprival of their political opponents' rights. At the same time, it is possible that in case of the complete destruction of the opposition, these norms will again be abolished.

2. The problem of the validity and proportionality of the restriction of electoral rights

The opportunity to expand the list of grounds for deprivation of electoral rights established in the Russian Constitution has time and again been criticized by Russian constitutionalists. The Golos movement agrees with this criticism and considers the expansion of the grounds for deprivation of electoral rights beyond the legal norms established by Part 3 of Art. 32 of the Russian Constitution as unconstitutional: the principles of government of the people, the very concept of the sovereignty of the people suggest that citizens can independently decide who they want to confer certain powers. At the same time, voters, of course, should be able to obtain sufficient and objective information about the reputation problems of candidates in order to make a decision consciously.

At the same time, we note that international electoral standards do not deny the possibility of depriving the passive electoral right, but such deprivation should be consistent with several conditions: it must be provided for by the law; the proportionality principle must be respected; the disenfranchisement should be based on recognition of mental disability or a criminal conviction for a serious offense; in addition, deprivation of political rights or recognition as mentally disabled has to be allowed only by a direct court decision (Code of good practice in electoral matters).

In general, the Russian Constitutional Court agrees with this, noting that the restriction of electoral rights should be based on the criteria of being reasonable, proportionate, necessary, and reasonable, and pursue constitutionally significant goals. However, it believes it is possible to deprive the passive electoral right not by a court decision, but on the law basis only. Although, the decision emphasized that such a procedure was acceptable as at that time the deprivation of the right to be elected was not provided for convicts in cases of medium gravity (except extremist articles), or for those convicted without imprisonment, apparently believing such a restriction of rights to be proportionate precisely for serious and extremely serious crimes. Now the "automatic" procedure has expanded to non-strict articles and even to some administrative Offences that are not a crime. For convicted under these articles, the loss of rights is unconditionally valid for the maximum prescribed period and cannot be reduced. We emphasize that the European Court of Human Rights considers the automatic and undifferentiated deprivation of the electoral rights of a group of persons to be incompatible with article 3 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

In any case, many of the provisions of the law that deprive citizens of the most important political right to be elected do not comply with the stated principles of proportionality, rationality, validity, and necessity. Citizens often become "disenfranchised" although the court assessed the degree of public danger of their acts as low, having sentenced them to a conditional sentence or just fined a minimum amount.

For instance, on March 3, 2021, in Tobolsk, deputy of the Tyumen Regional Duma from the Communist Party Yuri Yukhnevich was found guilty of distributing extremist materials (Article 20.29 of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation) for a repost of Alexei Navalny's video entitled "Remind crooks and thieves their Manifesto - 2002". The court assessed the degree of public danger of such an act by imposing a fine of one thousand rubles, but as a result, Yuri Yukhnevich was deprived of the passive electoral right (for more examples of Offences that can lead to deprivation of rights see chap. 4). In 2020, another 34 citizens were brought to administrative responsibility for the distribution of the same video. They had to pay a fine of 1 to 3 thousand rubles and automatically lost the right to be elected.

In August 2020, a left-wing activist, anti-fascist Lev Burlakov, who administered the Levomarginal public (translator's note: left-wing outcast) on VKontakte, was arrested in Naberezhnye Chelny for 10 days under Art. 20.3 of Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation. The materials of his case included three his posts (a meme with a photograph of the NSDAP congress, ridiculing the dogmatic perception of Marxism, a repost with Nazi symbols from the community "These funny offended right-wings" and a critical post with a photo from the "Russian March" in Yekaterinburg).

In December 2020, a resident of Dankov (Lipetsk Oblast') Sergey Korablin was fined one thousand rubles under Part 1 of Art. 20.3 Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation for posting on VKontakte an excerpt from the animated series "South Park," where one of the heroes comes to the school on Halloween in a Hitler costume with the swastika symbol on his shoulder. Korablin was also deprived of the right to be elected.

The question of the deprivation of the right to be elected for having a residence permit in another state is even more paradoxical. If in the case of second citizenship it is possible to discuss the potential existence of a conflict of interest due to obligations arising to another state (although here such restrictions look strange at the level of local self-government), then in the case of a residence permit there are no special obligations to a foreign country, so there is no threat to the people's sovereignty.

The Constitutional Court of Russia also recognizes this and explicitly says that the granting of a residence permit in the territory of a foreign state cannot witnesses a decrease in the value of Russian citizenship for such a citizen or question the supremacy of the Russian Constitution for them. At the same time, citizens are deprived of the passive electoral right for actions that are not even a violation of the law. In fact, the Russian state shows distrust of such citizens, although it simultaneously spends significant funds and efforts on organizing voting abroad. In addition, millions of Russian citizens living abroad are practically deprived of representation, because those who live here cannot represent them, they have other interests.

Similar questions of validity arise concerning provisions that prohibit citizens with bank accounts, cash, or other financial instruments abroad from holding elected office. This, for example, is indicated in paragraph 3.3 of Art. 33 of the Federal Law No 67 «On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right to Participate in the Referendum of Citizens of the Russian Federation», which requires to get rid of such tools beforehand, and paragraph 9 of Art. 4 of the same law states, that deputies and elected officials who serve on an on-going basis, is not entitled to engage in teaching, scientific or other creative activities, which are financed exclusively from foreign sources unless otherwise provided by an international treaty or Russian legislation. Thus, in fact, Russian teachers of foreign universities or musicians playing in foreign orchestras are deprived of the opportunity to participate in direct government.

It is important to emphasize that Russian legislators are not trying to demonstrate concern about the compliance of their repressive measures that limit citizens' voting rights with the criteria of being reasonable, proportionate, necessary, and reasonable.

In this sense, the adoption of changes to the 2020 electoral legislation is prominent. Amendments depriving hundreds of thousands of citizens of the passive electoral right were introduced to the second reading of the bill, which was initially not related to these issues at all. They were adopted very quickly, without any public discussion. As a justification for their need, the table of amendments contained only a mention that similar restrictions apply to a number of non-elective posts: judges, prosecutors, police officers, the Investigative Committee, the federal fire service, as well as members of the board and chairpersons of the board of the housing cooperatives.

A new law depriving the passive electoral right of persons "involved in the activities" of extremist and terrorist organizations was adopted in the same way. In this case, such a significant restriction of the rights of citizens does not contain any justification at all in the explanatory note submitted when the bill was introduced. The project's authors did not hide the fact that it is opportunistic in nature - they tried to adopt it before the election of deputies of the State Duma of Russia in 2021 have started. To do this, they were even ready to violate the procedure, abandoning the mandatory 20-day period, which stands out so that the deputies themselves could get acquainted with the bill and develop their attitude.

All this suggests that parliamentarians, when restricting the citizens' rights, are driven not by the interests of protecting the rights of citizens and constitutionally protected values, but by completely different motivation - the same as their predecessors were driven for eliminating political competition a hundred years ago. The real goal of these innovations is not to protect the sovereignty of the people as a source of power, but to limit it to the maximum, and to filter candidates objectionable to the current government.

3. List of grounds for deprivation of the passive electoral right and estimate of the number of convicts for 10 years

Now, the deprivation of the passive electoral right threatens citizens convicted under 417 criminal, two administrative articles, involved in the activities of extremist and terrorist organizations, as well as those having additional citizenship, residence permits, or foreign financial instruments and accounts in foreign banks. There is a list of articles below leading to the deprivation of the passive electoral right and the number of persons convicted of them over the past 10 years. At the same time, it is important to bear in mind that the deprivation of the right to be elected in many cases applies for a sufficiently long period after the withdrawal or expiration of the criminal record, and does not end immediately after release.

Therefore, for convicts under serious articles, the criminal record is extinguished for up to eight years, and the deprivation of the passive electoral right lasts another 10 years after the expiration or withdrawal of the criminal record. In the case of extremely serious articles, these periods are 10 and 15 years, respectively. Thus, a person may be deprived of the right to run for candidacy for another 25 years after his release from prison, which turns the defeat in rights into almost lifelong. This means that the real number of "disenfranchised" according to open data is definitely impossible to establish, and it can be significantly higher than we estimated it.

The largest number of "disenfranchised" are among those who have a second citizenship or residence permit. According to various estimates, their number may exceed 6 million people (see below).

In second place are convicts of theft and burglary (two articles). Over the previous decade alone, more than 1.1 million people were convicted under these articles. Moreover, these articles are classified as serious, and they provide for the deprivation of the passive electoral right for a period of 10 years after expiration or withdrawal of a criminal record, the term of which is up to eight years. This means that the real number of "disenfranchised" will be significantly higher.

In third place is the widely used narcotic drug article (part 2 of article 228 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), which most often appears among fabricated cases (the most sensational in recent years is the "Golunov case"). More than 300 thousand people were convicted under it from 2010 to 2020. This article applies to the serious ones too.

The number of convicts under traditionally "political" articles is not so large. However, these particular articles are used to bring to responsibility thousands of political activists, protesters, volunteers of political headquarters, etc., that is, the most politically active citizens of the country. Thus, 3,363 people were convicted under "extremist" criminal articles over ten years. Statistics on similar administrative articles are more impressive - only in 2020, 4096 people were convicted for the production or distribution of extremist materials, as well as for the propaganda or public demonstration of extremist symbols. Given the new "anti-extremist" amendments, this number may soon grow many times. 

It should be mentioned about citizens punished under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation for organizing or participating in unauthorized protests. A feature of that article is that, with numerous recurrences, it can become prejudice to criminal Art. 212.1 ("Dadinskaya" article), which leads to the deprivation of the passive electoral right, for example, as happened with the Moscow municipal deputy Yulia Galyamina.

Thus, all persons brought to administrative responsibility under these articles in recent months could potentially be at risk of being deprived of the right to be elected (see chap. 4). Only after protests in support of Alexei Navalny in January - February 2021, 17.6 thousand people were detained in more than 125 cities, more than 9 thousand cases of administrative Offences were opened, 90 criminal cases were opened. Almost 1800 more people were detained after the protest on April 21. All these thousands of active, politicized citizens were threatened to become "disenfranchised" and be excluded from public policy in case if they would participate in the protest actions several more times. Practically, these citizens risk becoming deprived of the passive electoral right for participating in peaceful demonstrations, which are recognized by the Constitutional Court of Russia not only as a form of peaceful constructive social dialogue but also a significant manifestation of the social and political freedom of the individual, which is included in the system of democratic institutions, promoting the identification and formation of the will and interests of citizens of Russia (Decision of the Constitutional Court of 13.05.2014  No. 14-P, of 18.06.2019  No. 24-P).

Here are detailed statistics on different articles below.

3.1 Additional citizenship or foreign residence permit

The existence of citizenship of a foreign state, residence permit, or other document confirming the right to permanent residence of a Russian citizen in the territory of a foreign state leads to the fact that citizens have the right to be elected only to local authorities if this is provided for by an international agreement.

The exact number of citizens with second citizenship is unknown, and the official data of many departments significantly differ in estimating their number. In 2015, the Federal Migration Service reported that, according to its estimates, about 6 million people were to notify the Russian authorities of the second citizenship or residence permit. Moreover, the calculation was based on data that since 1992 about 5.5 million people received Russian citizenship while possessing a foreign passport. The number of Russian citizens who initially received a second passport or the right of permanent residence in other countries is unknown since there is no motivation to declare this, except for a hypothetical fine. So, in the first half of 2015, when the obligation to declare the second citizenship or residence permit appeared, about 1 million people declared the presence of such. However, in January 2020, the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation reported that there were only half a million holders of such documents from 2015 to 2019 (experts noted that in the spring of 2020 the demand for a second citizenship or residence permit among Russians increased by 20% compared to the previous year). At the same time, according to the CEC of Russia as of January 1, 2021, the number of voters outside Russia amounted to more than 1.8 million people.

3.2 Campaigning with extremism or inciting discord in speeches, materials, campaigning

Citizens are depriving of the passive electoral right based on part 3.2 (d) of Art. 4 of the Federal Law of 12.06.2002 No. 67-FZ "On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right to Participate in the Referendum of Citizens of the Russian Federation", if before the election day within the statutory term of office of a public authority or a local self-government body, in which elections are called, or an official for whose an election is called, in respect of citizens or a political party, a court decision that has entered into force establishes:

• The fact of campaigning with calling for the commission of acts defined as extremist activities or other means of inducing such acts, as well as the justification of extremism;

• The fact of campaigning inciting social, racial, national or religious discord, degrading national dignity, promoting exclusivity, superiority or inferiority of citizens on grounds of their attitude to religion, social, racial, national, religious or linguistic affiliation;

• The fact of campaigning with propaganda and public demonstration of Nazi paraphernalia or symbols, or paraphernalia or symbols similar to Nazi ones to the extent of their mixing were carried out.

3.3 The existence of a criminal sentence that has entered into force (even after the withdrawal or expiration of a criminal record)

3.3.1. Prisoners sentenced to imprisonment for committing serious crimes under 254 articles, are being deprived of the passive electoral right until ten years from the date of withdrawal or expiration of the criminal record.

Serious crimes are wilful acts for which the maximum penalty does not exceed 10 years in prison and careless acts for which the maximum penalty does not exceed 15 years in prison.

   
Article of the Criminal Code   of the Russian Federation   
   
Article's Title of the   Criminal Code of the Russian Federation   
   
Number of sentenced in   2010-2020 to imprisonment for serious crimes (persons)   
   
Art. 111 (2)   
   
Intentionally inflicting   serious bodily injury committed in a generally dangerous way, for hire, for   hooligan motives, with the use of weapons or objects used as weapons, etc.   
   
71 558   
   
Art. 158 (3)   
   
theft committed with illegal   entry from an oil pipeline, gas pipeline, on a large scale, from a bank   account   
   
391 373   
   
Art. 159 (4)   
   
fraud committed by an   organized group or on an especially large scale or resulting in the deprivation   of the citizen's right to housing   
   
36 874   
   
Art. 161 (2)   
   
burglary committed by a   group of persons with illegal entry into a home, with the use of violence not   life-threatening, on a large scale   
   
227 738   
   
Art. 162 (2)   
   
Robbery committed by a group   of persons by previous concert, as well as with the use
   
of weapons or objects used   as weapons   
   
62 631   
   
Art. 228 (2)   
   
Violating the Rules of   Turnover of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
   
Substances   
   
361 857   
   
Art. 228.1 (1)   
   
Illegal making, sale or   dispatch of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or
   
analogues thereof, as well   as illegal sale or dispatch of plants containing narcotics or
   
psychotropic substances or   parts thereof containing narcotics or psychotropic substances   
   
51 794   
   
other serious crimes   
   
464 688   
   
Totally   
   
1 668 513   


3.3.2. Persons sentenced to imprisonment for committing extremely serious crimes under 111 articles are being deprived of the passive electoral right until fifteen years from the date of withdrawal or expiration of the criminal record

Extremely serious crimes are wilful acts punishable by imprisonment for more than 10 years or a more severe penalty.

   
Article of the Criminal Code   of the Russian Federation   
   
Article's Title of the   Criminal Code of the Russian Federation   
   
Number of sentenced in   2010-2020 to imprisonment for serious crimes (persons)   
   
Art. 105 (1, 2)   
   
Murder   
   
72 195   
   
Art. 111 (4)   
   
Intentional   Infliction of a Grave Injury Resulting in the Death of   the Victim Through Negligence   
   
79 640   
   
Art. 162 (3)   
   
Robbery Committed with Illegal   Entry into a Home, Premises or Other Warehouse or on
   
a Large Scale   
   
19 684   
   
Art. 228.1 (3)   
   
Illegal Making, Sale   or Dispatch of Narcotic Drugs, Psychotropic Substances or Analogues Thereof,   as Well as Illegal Sale or Dispatch of Plants Containing Narcotics or   Psychotropic Substances, or Parts Thereof Containing Narcotics or   Psychotropic Substances by a group of   persons by prior agreement; in a significant amount   
   
71 404   
   
Art. 228.1 (4)   
   
Illegal Making, Sale   or Dispatch of Narcotic Drugs, Psychotropic Substances or Analogues Thereof,   Committed by an Organized Group,   with the Abuse of One's Official Position, on a Large Scale   
   
64 922   
   
other extremely serious   crimes   
   
121 243   
   
Totally   
   
429 088   

3.3.3. Persons convicted of committing extremist crimes and have an unresolved and outstanding conviction for such crimes on the election day are deprived of the passive electoral right

   
Article of the Criminal Code   of the Russian Federation   
   
Article's Title of the   Criminal Code of the Russian Federation   
   
Number of sentenced in   2010-2020 to imprisonment for serious crimes (persons)   
   
Art. 119 (2)   
   
Threat of Murder or   Infliction of Grave Injury to Health Based on Political, Ideological, Racial,   National or Religious Hatred.   
   
84   
   
Art. 280   
   
Public Appeals for the Performance of   Extremist Activity   
   
728   
   
Art. 280 (1)   
   
Public Appeals for Actions Aimed at Violating the Territorial Integrity   of the Russian Federation   
   
18   
   
Art. 282   
   
Incitement of Hatred or   Enmity, as Well as Abasement of Human Dignity   
   
2 183   
   
Art. 282.1   
   
Organization of Extremist Community   
   
57   
   
Art. 282.2   
   
Organization of Extremist Organization’s   Activity   
   
292   
   
Art. 282.3   
   
Financing of Extremist   Activity   
   
1   
   
Art. 357   
   
Genocide   
   
0   
   
Totally   
   
3 363   

3.3.4. Persons convicted to imprisonment for committing crimes and have an unresolved and outstanding conviction for such crimes on the election day are deprived of the passive electoral right until five years from the date of withdrawal or expiration of the criminal record

   
Article of the Criminal Code   of the Russian Federation   
   
Article's Title of the   Criminal Code of the Russian Federation   
Number of sentenced in 2010-2020 to imprisonment for serious crimes (persons)
   
Art. 106   
   
The Killing by a Mother of   Her Newborn Child   
   
488   
   
Art. 107 (2)   
   
Homicide Committed in a State of Temporary   Insanity   
   
30   
   
Art. 110.1 (3)   
   
Incitement to Suicide   
   
5   
   
Art. 112 (2)   
   
Intentional Infliction of   Injury of Average Gravity Health   
   
23 397   
   
Art. 119 (2)   
   
Threat of Murder or   Infliction of Grave Injury Health   
   
67   
   
Art. 126 (1)   
   
Abduction   
   
304   
   
Art. 127 (2)   
   
Illegal Deprivation of   Liberty   
   
1 478   
   
Art. 127.2 (1)   
   
Use of Slave Labour   
   
3   
   
Art. 136   
   
Violation of the Equality of   Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms   
   
0   
   
Art. 141 (2, 3)   
   
Obstruction of the Exercise   of Electoral Rights or of the Work of Electoral
   
Commissions   
   
13   
   
Art. 142 (1)   
   
Falsification of Election   Documents and Referendum Documents   
   
21   
   
Art. 142.1   
   
Falsification of Voting   Results   
   
39   
   
Art. 142.2 (1, 3)   
   
Illegal production and   receipt of voting papers or referendum voting papers   
   
0   
   
Art. 150 (1)   
   
Involvement of a Minor in   the Commission of a Crime   
   
2 156   
   
Art. 158 (2)   
   
Theft   
   
727 992   
   
Art. 159 (2, 5)   
   
Fraud   
   
50 857   
   
Art. 159.1 (2)   
   
Credit fraud   
   
1 660   
   
Art. 159.2 (2)   
   
Payment receipt fraud   
   
217   
   
Art. 159.3 (2)   
   
Payment card fraud   
   
2 066   
   
Art. 159.5 (2)   
   
Insurance fraud   
   
559   
   
Art. 159.6 (2)   
   
Fraud in the area of   computer
   
information   
   
154   
   
Art. 160 (2)   
   
Misappropriation or   Embezzlement   
   
8 060   
   
Art. 161 (1)   
   
Robbery   
   
126 997   
   
Art. 167 (2)   
   
Wilful Destruction or Damage   of Property   
   
16 579   
   
Art. 174 (3)   
   
The Legalization   (Laundering) of Funds and Other Property Acquired by Other Persons Illegally   
   
9   
   
Art. 174.1 (3)   
   
The Legalization   (Laundering) of Monetary Funds or Other Property Acquired by a Person as a   Result of an Offence Committed by Him/Her   
   
63   
   
Art. 189 (2)   
   
Illegal Export from the   Russian Federation or Transfer of Raw Stuff,
   
Materials, Equipment, Technology,   or of Scientific and Technical Information, or
   
Illegal Carrying Out of   Works (Rendering Services) Which May Be Used in the
   
Development of Weapons of   Mass Destruction, Armaments, and Military
   
Hardware   
0
   
Art. 200.2 (1)   
   
Alcohol and Cigarette smuggling   
   
45   
   
Art. 200.3 (2)   
   
Involvement of Citizens'   Money Against the Legislative Rules of the RF Affecting Block Construction   Sharing and Other Real Estates   
   
10   
   
Art. 205.2 (1)   
   
Public Calls for Committing   of Terrorist Activity or Public Justification of
   
Terrorism   
   
223   
   
Art. 207.2 (2)   
   
Public Dissemination of   Knowingly False Information of Public Significance, with Grave Consequences   
   
0   
   
Art. 212.1   
   
Repeated violation of the   established procedure for the organization or holding assemblies, meetings,
   
demonstrations, marches and   picketing   
   
1   
   
Art. 228.4 (1)   
   
Illicit Production, Sale or   Transfer of Precursors of Narcotic Drugs or Psychotropic Substances, as well   as Illicit Sale or Transfer of Plants Containing Precursors of Narcotic Drugs   or Psychotropic Substances or Their Parts Containing Precursors of Narcotic   Drugs or Psychotropic Substances   
   
15   
   
Art. 230 (1)   
   
Inducement to Use Narcotic   Drugs or Psychotropic Substances   
   
169   
   
Art. 232 (1)   
   
Organisation or Maintenance   of Dens for Consuming Narcotic or
   
Psychotropic Substances   
   
20 661   
   
Art. 239 (1)   
   
Organisation of an   Association Infringing upon the Liberties and Rights of
   
Individuals   
   
3   
   
Art. 243.4 (2)   
   
Destruction or Damage to   Military Graves, as well as Monuments, Stelae, Obelisks, Other Memorial   Structures or Objects, which Immortalize the Memory of Those who Died   Defending Their Fatherland or Its Interests, or Are Dedicated to the Days of   Russia’s Military Glory   
   
Art. 244 (2)   
   
Outrages upon Bodies of the   Deceased and Their Burial Places   
0
   
Art. 258.1 (1.1)   
   
Illegal Hunting and   Trafficking of Especially Valuable Wild Animals and Aquatic Living Resources   Listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and (or) Protected by   International Agreements of the Russian Federation   
129
   
Art. 273 (1, 2)   
   
Creation, Use, and   Dissemination of Harmful Computer Programs   
   
2   
   
Art. 274.1 (1)   
   
Unlawful impact on critical   information infrastructure of
   
the Russian Federation   
   
593   
   
Art. 280 (2)   
   
Public Appeals for the   Performance of Extremist Activity   
   
0   
   
Art. 280.1 (2)   
   
Public Calls for Actions   Aimed at Violating the Territorial Integrity of the Russian Federation   
   
477   
   
Art. 282 (1)   
   
Incitement of Hatred or   Enmity, as Well as Abasement of Human Dignity   
   
12   
   
Art. 296 (3)   
   
Threats or Forcible Actions   in Connection with the Administration of Justice
   
or Preliminary Investigation   
   
1 055   
   
Art. 309 (3)   
   
Bribery or Compulsion to   Give Testimony or for Evade Giving Testimony, or
   
for Mistranslating   
   
87   
   
Art. 313 (1, 2)   
   
Escape from a Place of   Confinement, Arrest, or Custody   
   
196   
   
Art. 318 (1)   
   
Use of Violence Against a   Representative of the Power   
   
1 957   
   
Art. 354 (2)   
   
Public Appeals to Unleash an   Aggressive War   
   
43 984   
   
Art. 354.1 (2)   
   
Rehabilitation of Nazism   
   
0   
   
Totally   
   
0   
1 032 833


3.4 Administrative prosecution

Persons subjected to administrative punishment for the committing of administrative Offences under articles 20.3 and 20.29 of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation are deprived of the passive electoral right if voting in the elections takes place before the end of the period during which a person is considered to be subjected to administrative punishment.

Most questions arise under these articles, regarding the proportionality of punishment (deprivation of the right to be elected) to real misconduct.

So, in 2020 alone 2274 people were convicted under Art. 20.3 Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation ("Propaganda or public demonstration of Nazi paraphernalia or symbols, or paraphernalia or symbols of extremist organizations, or other paraphernalia or symbols, the propaganda or public demonstration of which is prohibited by federal laws").

In 2020, 1822 people were convicted under Art. 20.29 Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation ("Production and distribution of extremist materials"). In 34 cases, citizens were brought in for distributing Alexei Navalny's banned video "Remind crooks and thieves their Manifesto - 2002". The perpetrators were fined from one to three thousand rubles.

4. List of Russian politicians who are deprived or may be deprived of the passive electoral right

Definitely, a significant part of those convicted of real crimes has no plans to participate in any elections (although running for elections is a rather massive phenomenon: in 2019 alone, more than 106 thousand candidates ran for local elections). That is why it is an important issue to see how the adopted restrictions can affect those who are genuinely interested in participating in public policy and elections.

To answer it, Golos monitors the initiation of administrative and criminal cases, which may lead to the deprivation of the passive electoral right against politicians of different levels. Among such grounds, we also considered administrative cases under Art. 20.2 of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing"), since repeated prosecution under it, may lead to the initiation of criminal proceedings under the "Dadin's" article, and entail deprivation of the right to be elected, as it happened with the Moscow municipal deputy Julia Galyamina.

The monitoring objects included individuals whose political ambitions have no doubt. Firstly, these are current deputies of representative bodies, starting from the level of administrative centers of the regions (the exception was Moscow and St. Petersburg, where the most prominent deputies of district councils were also taken into account). Secondly, the list includes current and former leaders of parties or political project branches ("Navalny headquarters"*, "Open Russia"**, etc.) in the regions, since it is assumed that these persons should have political ambitions and interests "by their position." Thirdly, the list included a number of prominent regional political figures who are not deputies or are not associated with specific parties at the moment, but who actively participated in relatively large elections earlier (for example, Yevgeny Roizman in Yekaterinburg).

We started monitoring from the date of the amendments' adoption in 2020 - May 23 - in connection with the "Golos" hypothesis that after their adoption pressure on political activists will increase: falsified cases may be initiated to prevent bright politicians from going to the elections. Therefore, the list did not include those politicians who were deprived of the right to participate in the elections earlier (for example, Alexei Navalny).

The list is grounded on data taken from open sources, it is not complete and will be replenished. If you believe that the list lacks someone of the political figures known to you who are deprived or may be deprived of the right to be elected, then write us at [email protected]

The list consists of two parts.

The first part is the "red zone," that is, politicians who have been deprived of the passive electoral right over the past year. It currently contains six names.

The second part ("yellow zone"), much more voluminous, consists of the politicians' names who are at risk and may be deprived of the passive electoral right in the near future. In most cases, these are those who have already received administrative penalties for participating in unsanctioned protests, and who, in case of repeated violations, may be under criminal investigation under Art. 212.1 of the Criminal Code ("Repeated violation of the established procedure for the organization or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches and picketing"). This second group currently contains 75 names.

4.1 "Red Zone" (deprived of the passive electoral right)

1. Andrey Borovikov. Arkhangelsk Oblast. Ex-Coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in the Arkhangelsk Oblast'. On September 29, 2020, Andrei Borovikov's house was searched as part of an investigation into a criminal case instituted under part 3(b) of Art. 242 of the Criminal Code ("Illegal Making and Distribution of Pornographic Materials or Objects"). The reason was the video of the Rammstein posted in 2014 on a personal page on Vkontakte. On April 29, 2021, the Lomonosov court of Arkhangelsk sentenced Andrei Borovikov to 2.5 years in an ordinary-regime colony. Andrei Borovikov is deprived of the passive electoral right.

2. Julia Galyamina. Moscow. Municipal deputy. She announced her intention to nominate her candidacy for the election of State Duma deputies. On July 15, 2020, the Tagansky Court of Moscow fined Yulia Galyamina 200 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing") for action in support of Ilya Azar, held on May 29. On July 31, it became known that a criminal case had been instituted against her under Art. 212.1 of the Criminal Code ("Repeated violation of the established procedure for the organization or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches and picketing"). A new reason was the action against amendments to the Constitution of Russia, held on July 15. In total, the prosecution presented 10 episodes from 2019 to 2020. On December 23, 2020, she Timiryazevsky district court sentenced her to two years’ probation. She is deprived of the passive electoral right. March 25, 2021 she was deprived of the mandate of the district deputy. March 13, 2021 she was detained at the Forum of Municipal Deputies in Moscow. A protocol has been drawn up under Article 20.33 of the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization"). May 22 she was detained at the Zemsky Congress in Novgorod. On May 24, she was sentenced to seven days of arrest under Art. 19.3 Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation ("Failure to comply with the requirements of a police officer").

3. Eugene Domozhirov. Vologda Oblast. Chairman of the "Vmeste" movement, independent politician, ex-deputy of the City Council of Vologda. July 6, 2020, Yevgeny Domozhirov was detained in Vologda. Law enforcement officers charged him with articles on the illegal issuance and receipt of a ballot paper (Article 5.22 of Code of Administrative Offences) and on the falsification of election documents (Article 142 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation) due to allegedly double voting on July 1, 2020. On July 1, Yevgeny Domozhirov published a video on YouTube about how he managed to get a ballot for voting twice - first at a stationary station, then at an exit station. Domozhirov insists that he lowered the only ballot paper into the ballot box, and saved the other one for memory. On July 10, 2020, the court fined him 30 thousand rubles under the article on illegal receipt of the ballot paper (Article 5.22 of the Code of Administrative Offences). 

On August 12, 2020, the Vologda City Court fined Yevgeny Domozhirov 2 thousand rubles under article 20.3 (1) ("Public demonstration of Nazi symbols") for a video published in May in which he painted Nazi caps to Governor Oleg Kuvshinnikov and Mayor Sergei Voropanov. In a video called "Destroy. Real Nazis" he complained about the cutting down of the square, which was planted by veterans of the Great Patriotic War and claimed that the authorities behave "like the real Nazis both in relation to veterans and to this memory". As a result, he was deprived of the passive electoral right.

On January 29, 2021, Yevgeny Domozhirov was arrested for five days for organizing an unsanctioned protest on January 23 in support of Alexei Navalny. Two protocols were drawn up on him - under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation ("Violating the Established Procedure for Arranging or Conducting a Meeting, Rally, Demonstration, Procession or Picket"), as well as Art. 20.6.1 (2) of the Code of Administrative Offences  ("Failure to comply with the rules of conduct in an emergency or threat of its occurrence"). The arrest of Domozhirov was appointed under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Code of Administrative Offences ("Organization or holding a public event without submitting a notice of a public event in the prescribed manner"). Later, Yevgeny Domozhirov was assigned a new arrest - eight days for the protest on January 31 in Vologda, the organizer of which he was considered (article 20.2 (2) Code of Administrative Offences). On January 18, it became known that another protocol under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code for organizing the protest on January 23 - this time in Cherepovets was done on him.

4. Anton Mirbadalev. The Mari El Republic. Coordinator of the Liberal Democratic Party in Mari El, deputy of the Mari El State Assembly. On March 25, 2021, the Yoshkar-Ola City Court fined Anton Mirbadalev one thousand rubles under the article on the distribution of extremist materials (Article 20.29 of the Administrative Offences Code) for distributing a video recognized as extremist in 2013 (the post was published in 2010, and on February 2021 it was deleted). He is also deprived of the passive electoral right.

5. Nikolai Platoshkin. Moscow. Soviet and Russian diplomat, leader of the movement "For New Socialism." On October 21, 2020, at the constituent congress of the Socialist Party of the Russian Federation (SPRF), he was elected its chairman. On June 4, 2020, the Investigative Committee of Russia opened a criminal case against Platoshkin on the grounds of crimes under Art. 212 (1.1) of the Criminal Code of Russia ("Inducement or other involvement of a person in the committing of mass riots accompanied by violence, pogroms, arson, destruction of property, the use of weapons, explosive devices, explosives, poisonous or other substances and objects that pose a danger to others, as well as armed resistance to a representative of power"), as well as under Art. 207.1 of the Criminal Code of Russia ("Public dissemination of knowingly false information about circumstances that pose a threat to the life and security of citizens"), he was searched. The politician was sent under house arrest. The reason for the accusation under the article on the riots was several videos of Platoshkin on YouTube. On June 15, 2020, Amnesty International recognized Platoshkin as a prisoner of conscience. On July 13, 2020, the Memorial organization recognized Nikolai Platoshkin as a political prisoner. On May 19, 2021, the Gagarinsky District Court of Moscow found Platoshkin guilty of inducing riots and publicly disseminating knowingly false information and sentenced him to five years in prison on probation and to a fine of 700 thousand rubles. He is deprived of the passive electoral right.

6. Yuri Yukhnevich. Tyumen Oblast. Deputy of the Tyumen Regional Duma from the Communist Party. He directly announced his ambitions to become a deputy of the State Duma of Russia. On March 3, 2021, in Tobolsk, Yuri Yukhnevich was found guilty of distributing extremist materials (Article 20.29 of the Administrative Offences Code) and fined one thousand rubles. The court found him guilty of an administrative offense for distributing in his VKontakte account a video by Alexei Navalny from 2011 entitled "Remind the crooks and thieves of their Manifesto - 2002." The court found this video as extremist in 2013. He is deprived of the passive electoral right.

4.2 "Yellow Zone" (at the risk to be deprived of the passive electoral right)

1. Vadim Ananyin. Kirov Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Open Russia** in the Kirov Oblast. On October 29, 2020, Vadim Ananyin held an unsanctioned action in Kirov in memory of the victims of political repression. As a result, the police drew up an administrative protocol under Art. 20.2 (1) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing"). On February 4, 2021, the Leninsky District Court decided to arrest Ananyin for four days under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing") for action in support of Alexei Navalny, held on January 23, 2021.

2. Ural Baibulatov. Bashkortostan Republic. The leader of the "Respublika" socio-political movement, an eco-activist, the leader of public defenders of Shihan Kushtau. On January 28, 2021, the Kirovsky District Court of Ufa appointed Ural Baibulatov 10 days of administrative arrest under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing") for participating in a protest march on January 23 in support of Alexei Navalny.

3. Sergey Bespalov. Irkutsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of the Navalny Headquarter* in Irkutsk (until February 11, 2021). On April 14, 2020, a conflict occurred between Sergei Bespalov and an activist of the National Social Movement (NSM), after which on February 12, 2021, Sergey Bespalov was sentenced to 2 years and 8 months of restriction of liberty under Art. 112 (1) of the Criminal Code ("Intentional Infliction of Injury to Health of Average Gravity"). He is not only forbidden to leave Irkutsk without the permission of the penal inspectorate and leave his house after 23:00 but also to attend public events. In addition, on January 23, 2021, he was detained before the protest in Irkutsk. He was arrested for 10 days under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing"). He left Russia on February, 17.

4. Sergey Boyko. Novosibirsk Oblast. Independent deputy of the city council of Novosibirsk. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Novosibirsk. On August 13, 2020, the Central District Court of Novosibirsk found Sergei Boyko guilty of organizing a public event without notice (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code) for installing an agitation cube. He received a fine of 20 thousand rubles. A similar fine for the same reason was issued to Sergey Boyko on August 26, 2020. On January 21, 2021, Sergei Boyko was summoned to the deputy ethics commission due to a complaint from Mayor Anatoly Lokot, and was detained along the way to the meeting. On January 23, 2021, by a decision of the Central District Court of Novosibirsk, Boyko was arrested for 28 days for repeated violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding a meeting, rally, demonstration, procession or picketing (article 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code), for announcing the action on January 23 on his stream on YouTube. According to oppositioner's supporter Andrei Gladchenko, the court session was held without a person involved in the case and a lawyer. According to him, the defense team was "misinformed" and "languished at a completely different office." The court, in view of the failure of the parties to appear, made the decision.

5. Sergey Boyko. Moscow. Ex-chairman of the Libertarian Party of Russia. On April 26, the Tagansky District Court fined Sergei Boyko 30 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing") for organizing a mass protest on April 21.

6. Nikolai Bondarenko. Saratov Oblast. Member of the Saratov Regional Duma (Communist Party). He announced his desire to run for election to the State Duma of Russia. On the morning of February 8, 2021, Nikolai Bondarenko was detained when leaving the apartment. The deputy was charged with an administrative offense under Art. 20.2 (5) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the procedure for organizing an assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing") for a "marches" in support of Alexei Navalny on January 31. He was fined 20 thousand rubles. On February 9, 2021, the Saratov Regional Duma Revenue Commission decided that he violated anti-corruption legislation. In particular, the communist received income from his videos on YouTube, while, according to members of the commission, he did not have the right to do so. On February 18, the Saratov Regional Duma by a majority vote adopted a draft resolution according to which Communist Party deputy Nikolai Bondarenko was recognized as a violator of the law on the status of a deputy. Subsequently, this draft decision will be submitted for discussion by the deputies, after which Bondarenko will most likely be deprived of the status of a deputy and leave the regional Duma. On February 25, it was clarified that the claims arose due to inaccurate information about the car and the lack of information about two bank accounts opened in the name of the deputy and his wife. Bondarenko himself fears that a criminal case will be opened against him.

7. Nikolai Bykovskikh. Lipetsk Oblast. Secretary of the Communist Party in the Lipetsk Oblast. On April 21, 2021, the Soviet District Court of Lipetsk fined Nikolai Bykovsky 10 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (1) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation by the organizer of a public event of the established procedure for organizing an assemblies"). He was charged with organizing an illegal meeting on Defender of the Fatherland Day, which the Communists themselves timed to coincide with the "Day of the Soviet Army and Navy."

8. Elizaveta Bychkova. Arkhangelsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Arkhangelsk. On January 23, 2021, Elizaveta Bychkova was detained after an action in support of Alexei Navalny. She was fined immediately according to two protocols: 15 thousand rubles for participating in the recording of a video message on January 16, and 25 thousand rubles for participating in protest on January 23 (Article 20.2 of the Administrative Offences Code).

9. Alexander Vorobyov. Yaroslavl Oblast. Deputy of the Yaroslavl Regional Duma, first secretary of the Communist Party in the Yaroslavl Oblast and leader of the Communist fraction in the regional Duma. On March 16, 2021, the Kirovsky District Court of Yaroslavl found Alexander Vorobyov guilty of committing an administrative offense under Art. 20.2 (1) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation by the organizer of a public event of the established procedure for organizing or holding a public event") and fined 10 thousand rubles. The reason was a meeting with voters on February 23 on Labor Square. Earlier, the application of the regional branch of the Communist Party for a meeting on February 23 in Yaroslavl was rejected due to coronavirus restrictions.

10. Alexey Vorsin. Khabarovsk Krai. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Khabarovsk. He was running for State Duma deputies (2016), mayor of Khabarovsk (2018), deputies of the Khabarovsk City Council. In December 2020, he announced that he plans to run for the election of deputies of the State Duma of Russia. On August 17, 2020, the Central District Court of Khabarovsk arrested Alexei Vorsin for 10 days under Art. 20.2 (6.1) Administrative Offences Code ("Participation in an unsanctioned action that entailed interference with traffic and pedestrians") for an action held on July 28 in support of the ex-governor of the Khabarovsk Krai Sergey Furgal. On September 16, 2020, he was arrested again for 10 days under Art. 20.2 (6.1) Administrative Offences Code. On October 16, 2020, the Zheleznodorozhny District Court of Khabarovsk fined him 10 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (5) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an aasembley, meeting, demonstration, marshes or picketing") for participating in the action held on October 10. On December 26, 2020, he was fined 150 thousand rubles under the article on repeated violation of the rules of the meeting (article 20.2. (8) Administrative Offences Code). Before the protest on January 23, 2021, he was detained and arrested for 11 days under Art. 19.3 (1) Administrative Offences Code ("Failure to comply with the requirements of a police officer") and fined 150 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marshes or picketing"). On March 18, he was searched due to the initiation of criminal proceedings under the "Dadin article" (Article 212.1 of the Criminal Code). On March 19, he was detained for 48 hours. On March 22 he was placed under house arrest.

11. Ivan Vostrikov. Tyumen Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Tyumen. He was arrested for five days on the eve of the protest on January 23 for organizing it (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing").

12. Alexey Gresko. Sverdlovsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Yekaterinburg. He was arrested for 10 days after the protest on January 23 under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing"). When he was serving his sentence, Moscow's police came to him in isolation and accused him of disobedience when he did not fulfill the requirements of a policeman at Vnukovo airport on January 17, 2021, while waiting for a meeting with Navalny. On February 8, he was detained and taken by the transport police to Koltsovo Airport for transportation to Moscow. On February 9, a court in Moscow sentenced him to 15 days of administrative arrest under Art. 19.3 of the Administrative Offences Code ("Failure to comply with the requirements of a police officer"). On February 12, the Moscow City Court reduced the period of Gresko's arrest to 12 days and he was released on the same day. April 21 he was detained in Yekaterinburg at the protest action. The next day, the Verkh-Isetsky District Court of Yekaterinburg appointed Gresko 29 days of arrest under article 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an aasembley, meeting, demonstration, marshes or picketing").

13. Dmitry Gudkov. Moscow. Ex-deputy of the State Duma of Russia. Gudkov was searched on June 1, 2021, after which he was taken to the Investigative Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Moscow and detained for two days. Later it became known that he is a suspect in a criminal case of causing property damage by deception or abuse of trust with especially large damage (article 165 (2, b) of the Criminal Code). The head of the international human rights group "Agora" Pavel Chikov, citing Gudkov's lawyer, explained that the case is about non-payment of debt under a lease agreement for non-residential premises in 2015-2017. After his release, Dmitry Gudkov left the country and announced his rejection of plans to run for the State Duma deputies' elections.

14. Ilya Danilov. Lipetsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Lipetsk. He is going to run for the deputies of the Lipetsk Regional Duma elections. On January 23, Danilov was detained an hour before the start of the protest in support of Alexei Navalny and received 10 days of arrest under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for holding meetings"). On February 1, Ilya Danilov was arrested for 20 days under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an aasembley, meeting, demonstration, marshes or picketing").

15. Marina Evdokimova. Samara Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Samara. On July 21, 2020, Marina Evdokimova, a candidate for municipal deputies of one of the Samara's districts, was prosecuted for an administrative offense under Art. 13.15 (9) Administrative Offences Code ("Abusing Freedom of Mass Information") on the fact of a post published by Evdokimova on April 21 in the account of the Samara Headquarters Navalny*. On August 31 (the candidate was refused registration at that time), the Kirovsky District Court of Samara dismissed the case of spreading fake. On January 22, 2021, Marina Evdokimova was arrested for five days a day before an unsanctioned protest action in support of Alexei Navalny (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing"). For the protest action, January 31 she has already got 28 days of arrest under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On March 11, 2021, Marina Evdokimova's parents were searched in connection with a criminal case initiated after January actions under Article 267 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation ("Putting out of Commission Transport Vehicles or Communications").

16. Oleg Emelyanov. Tatarstan Republic. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Tatarstan. On January 22, 2021, a criminal case was opened against Oleg Emelyanov under Art. 328 of the Criminal Code of Russia ("Evasion of Military or Alternative Civil Service"). Emelyanov claims he has a military ID, since he is recognized as unfit for service for health reasons. On January 23, on the day of the All-Russian protest actions in support of Alexei Navalny, Oleg Emelyanov was detained. He served 10 days of administrative arrest for calling for an unsanctioned public event (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). On February 15, as part of a criminal case on evasion of military service, a search was conducted in Emelyanov's apartment. On May 14, 2021, the police opened a case against Oleg Emelyanov under Art. 13.15 (9) ("Abusing Freedom of Mass Information"). The police report says that a video was posted in the public groups in social network of the headquarters in which Emelyanov spoke about the protests on January 23 and 31. In particular, he claimed that "the actions were a peaceful protest, and the concept of unauthorized meetings does not exist".

17. Ekaterina Engalycheva. Moscow. Deputy of the Moscow City Duma (Communist Party). On June 22, 2020, the Nikulinsky District Court of Moscow fined Moscow City Duma deputy Ekaterina Engalycheva 30 thousand rubles under the article on holding an unsanctioned action in February (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). The reason was the reception of citizens in front of the construction site in Ramenki on February 20, 2020. On March 18, 2021, the court of first instance issued an indictment against Engalycheva under Art. 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marshes or picketing") for an action in support of Alexei Navalny on January 23 and imposed a fine of 150 thousand rubles.

18. Vladislav Zhukovsky. Moscow. Economist, blogger, presenter of the "Red Line" channel, ex-candidate for the Moscow City Duma (Communist Party). On April 22, 2021, a protocol was drawn upon Vladislav Zhukovsky under Art. 20.2 of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing"). As a reason of organizing the action, law enforcement officers considered a tweet dated April 18, in which he asked subscribers to express their attitude to the protest held on April 21. Zhukovsky was arrested for 8 days. On April 26, it became known that he received a new summon - he had to come to the police on April 30 to draw up a protocol under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code for the action held on January 23, 2021 (the result is unknown).

19. Maxim Zabelin. Tomsk Oblast. Independent deputy of the City Duma of Tomsk. On February 1, 2021, the court ordered Maxim Zabelin to pay a fine of 17 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding assemblies, meetings, demonstrations, marches, and picketing") for a protest  action in support of Alexei Navalny on January 31. On March 13, Maxim Zabelin was detained at the Forum of Municipal Deputies in Moscow under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization").

20. Ruslan Zinatullin. Tatarstan Republic. Chairman of the regional branch of the Yabloko party in Tatarstan. On June 3, 2020, Ruslan Zinatullin was detained by the police for organizing a series of single pickets held on May 15 (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code "Organization or holding a public event without noticing the authority in the prescribed manner"). On July 22, 2020, the Volga District Court of Kazan appointed him 30 hours of compulsory work. On September 9, 2020, Ruslan Zinatullin's apartment was searched. According to Kommersant Kazan, the candidate for municipal deputies Zinatullin became a defendant in one of the Yukos criminal cases. March 13, 2021 the police detained Zinatullin at the Forum of Municipal Deputies in Moscow. He received a protocol under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization").

21. Alexander Zykov. Kostroma Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Kostroma. On August 3, 2020, Alexander Zykov submitted to the election commission documents on the nomination of a candidate of the Yabloko party for deputy of the City Duma of Kostroma. On August 5, police broke into the Zykov's house and grossly detained him with the use of force. During the detention, the security forces drew up a protocol on Zykov for allegedly "disobedience to the police" (Article 19.3 of the Administrative Offences Code). On the morning of January 23, 2021, before the start of the protest action in support of Alexei Navalny, Alexander Zykov was detained near his house. According to the 7x7 media, when Zykov was walking to a public transport stop, he was attacked by four men who left the UAZ-Patriot car, which is on the balance sheet of police department No. 2 in Kostroma. Without introducing themselves, they knocked him to the ground with a blow to the back of the head, pressed his neck with a knee to the ground, handcuffed him and took the phone. Then they began to break his fingers, not responding to requests to introduce themselves, show papers and call a lawyer. After that, the detainee was taken to a forest belt in the area of the Sholokhov village, where one of the men handed over Zykov's phone to an employee of the regional security department of the Kostroma Oblast. After that, the detainee with a bag on his head was taken to the Kostroma police station No. 2. On January 25, 2021, a court in Kostroma sentenced Alexander Zykov to arrest for 10 days under Art. 20.2 (1.1) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Involvement of a minor in an unsanctioned assembles, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing").

22. Mikhail Iosilevich. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Entrepreneur, in 2003 he was running for elections to the State Duma of Russia from the Yabloko party. On June 6, 2020, the Soviet District Court of Nizhny Novgorod fined Mikhail Iosilevich 15 thousand rubles under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization") for the events of 2019. On September 8-9, 2020, the police disrupted the training sessions of observers of the Golos movement, which were held in the place provided by Ioselevich. As a result, these trainings were attributed to Otkrytaya Rossia (Open Russia)** and on September 29, 2020, a criminal case was opened under Art. 284.1 of the Criminal Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization"), and on October 1, a search in Iosilevich's apartment was carried out. On January 30, 2021, the Moscow District Court of Nizhny Novgorod arrested him. The arrest was later extended until March 28, and then until June 28.

23. Ivan Kazankov. Mari El Republic. First Secretary of the Communist Party of Mari El. On September 30, 2020, the prosecutor's office of the Republic of Mari El announced the approval of the indictment in a criminal case. Ivan Kazankov, head of a large agricultural enterprise Zvenigovsky State Farm, is accused of theft on an especially large scale and of illegal entrepreneurship related to causing major damage (article 158 (4, b) and article 171 (1) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation). In February 2017, Ivan Kazankov was found guilty of illegal logging of forest plantations (felling was carried out on a forest of 1.1 hectares). The court sentenced him to a fine of one million rubles. He was released from criminal punishment due to amnesty. Nevertheless, the criminal record prevented Ivan Kazankov from maintaining the status of a deputy of the Mari El State Assembly. In May 2017, his powers as a parliamentarian were terminated ahead of schedule.

24. Artem Kanarev. Tomsk Oblast. Independent deputy of the City Duma of Tomsk. On February 1, 2021, he was convicted under Art. 20.2 of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") for a protest action in support of Alexei Navalny on January 31.

25. Vladimir Kalinin. Rostov Oblast. Chairman of the local branch of Yabloko in the city of Shakhty. He announced his intention to run for the elections of deputies of the State Duma in 2021. On April 3, 2021, the police were searched the Yabloko office in the city of Shakhty as part of a criminal case initiated under Art. 159 of the Criminal Code ("Fraud") on the events of 2014. At that time, Vladimir Kalinin took a loan from the Rostov Enterprise Support Fund for business development on the security of a truck, which a few months later got into an accident. According to the police, the loan was taken under the initially crashed non-working car.

26. Stanislav Kalinichenko. Kemerovo Oblast. Ex-coordinator of the Navalny Headquarter* in Kemerovo. On January 23, 2021, Stanislav Kalinichenko was arrested for seven days under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). April 9 the Kemerovo Navalny Headquarter* was searched.

27. Sofia Kapinosova. Voronezh Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Voronezh. On January 23, 2021, Sofia Kapinosova was detained at a protest in support of Alexei Navalny. On January 24, she was sentenced for nine days of administrative arrest for organizing a mass simultaneous stay and movement of citizens in public places that entailed a violation of public order (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). She was charged with a repost posted on her VKontakte account calling for participation in the protest. On April 23, the Central District Court of Voronezh appointed Kapinosova 15 days of administrative arrest for announcing a protest in support of Alexei Navalny under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing").

28. Olga Kartavtseva. Omsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Omsk. She was punished twice for the same thing - fined, and then arrested for 7 days for "organizing" the march on January 23 without giving notice (Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"), practically - for informing about time and place.

29. Maxim Klimov. Belgorod Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Belgorod. On January 24, 2021, Maxim Klimov was sentenced to 9 days under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding a assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On April 21, 2021, the October Court of Belgorod appointed Maxim Klimov 25 days of administrative arrest under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). The court considered Klimov's post in the personal Telegram channel to be a call for participation in the action: "I do not call anyone. If you need to be called to save an innocent person from death in prison, then you have problems".

30. Konstantin Kiselev. Sverdlovsk Oblast. Deputy of the City Duma of Yekaterinburg from the Yabloko party. On March 3, 2021, Konstantin Kiselev received a police summons to draw up an administrative protocol under Art. 20.2 (5) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding a assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") due to participation in protests on January 23 and 31 in support of politician Alexei Navalny. March 13, 2021 was the police detained Kiselev in Moscow at the Forum of Municipal Deputies and delivered him to the police department. He was one of the speakers of the United Democrats conference. He was issued a protocol under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization") and fined 15 thousand rubles. On April 12, the Leninsky District Court of Yekaterinburg appointed Kiselev 30 hours of compulsory work for participating in an unsanctioned protest action in support of politician Alexei Navalny, which took place on January 23, under Art. 20.2 (5) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for holding a assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"), despite the fact that he was at the protest action as an observer and monitored security between riot police and protesters. On April 13, he received another 30 hours of compulsory work, already per protest action on January 31.

31. Dmitry Kozlov. Khabarovsk Krai. Deputy of the regional Duma of the Khabarovsk Krai (LDPR). Dmitry Kozlov was detained on the same day as the ex-governor of the Khabarovsk Krai Sergey Furgal on June 9, 2020 on charges of especially large-scale fraud (article 159 (4) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation).

32. Eugene Kochegin. Volgograd Oblast. Ex-coordinator of the Navalny Headquarter* in Volgograd. On January 23, the police detained Yevgeny Kochegin at a protest action in support of Alexei Navalny and arrested him for 5 days under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding a public event").

33. Semyon Kochkin. Chuvashia Republic. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Cheboksary, candidate for deputy of the Cheboksary City Duma in 2020. During the election campaign of the Unified Election Day 2020, several protocols were drawn up for Semyon Kochkin and volunteers of his election headquarters under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code, campaigning pickets were recognized as unsanctioned events. Four cases were opened on Kochkin: one for a call on a meeting (Article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code, a penalty of 10 thousand rubles), one for meeting (Article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code, a penalty of 11 thousand rubles), two for campaining cubes (Article 20.2 (1) of the Administrative Offences Code, a penalty of 10 thousand rubles). Three more protocols were drawn up under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization"). January 22, 2021 Semyon Kochkin was detained. The next day, January 23, he was arrested for seven days for a video on YouTube calling to come to the protest action in support of Alexei Navalny (Article 20.2 of the Administrative Offences Code "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On January 29, the oppositionist received another seven days for repost was made four years ago, "containing an extremist phrase" (Article 20.29 of the Administrative Offences Code). On February 5, Semyon Kochkin was supposed to be released, but he was taken to the police department, where he was again detained and he spent the night in a cell. The court gave him another 8 days (Article 20.2 of the Administrative Offences Code) for an Instagram post calling to come to the protest action on January 23. On February 12, the Moscow District Court considered the next administrative protocol against Kochkin for the campaign cube posted during the oppositionist's election campaign, which law enforcement agencies qualified as a violation of the rules for holding a public event under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code. As a result, the court imposed a fine of 10 thousand rubles. On February 20, it became known that one or more members of the territorial election commission of the Moscow district of Cheboksary accused Semyon Kochkin of libel due to the publication of materials on fraud in the last elections in Chuvashia by Navalny Headquarter*.

34. Natalya Krylova. Sverdlovsk Oblast. Deputy of the Asbestovsky city district from the Communist Party. They have repeatedly tried to deprive her of her mandate. On February 25, 2021, it became known that the investigative committee, the Asbestos police, as well as the FSB in the Sverdlovsk Oblast are conducting a preliminary investigation against her. As follows from the response of the FSB of Russia in the Sverdlovsk Oblast, on January 19, 2021, the Asbestovsky Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia received materials from KUSP No. 18743 from the 13.10.2020 on the fact that the parliamentarian committed a crime under Art. 280 of the Criminal Code ("Public calls for extremist activities"). Olga Shapova appealed the Prosecutor General of Russia. At the same time materials of the check were transferred on competence to the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation across Sverdlovsk Oblast. On March 13, 2021, she was detained in Moscow at the Forum of Municipal Deputies and delivered to the police department. The protocol under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code was created ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization").

35. Sergey Kuznetsov. Khabarovsk Krai. Deputy of the regional Duma of the Khabarovsk Krai (LDPR). Dmitry Kozlov was detained on the same day as the ex-governor of the Khabarovsk Krai Sergey Furgal on June 9, 2020 on charges of especially large-scale fraud (article 159 (4) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation).

36. Elena Lekiashvili. Yaroslavl Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Yaroslavl. Kirovsky District Court of Yaroslavl of January 25, found Elena Lekiashvili guilty of committing an administrative offense under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Organization or holding a public event without submitting a notice of a public event in the prescribed manner"), she was sentenced to administrative punishment in the form of 10 days of administrative arrest. The court found that Lekiashvili "committed actions to organize an unsanctioned public event - a march - by conducting preliminary campaining". On March 31, searches were conducted in Lekiashvili's apartment and in her mother's apartment in the case of electricity theft: a branch of Public Joint-Stock Company «Interregional Distributive Grid Company of Center» Yarenergo", which served the Navalny Headquarters*, complained of theft of 286 thousand kilowatts and estimated damage at 2.4 million rubles. The investigative department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in the Kirovsky city district opened a criminal case under article 165 of the Criminal Code ("Infliction of Property Damage through Deception or Abuse of Confidence"). Lekiashvili was engaged as a witness in the case.

37. Nikolai Lyaskin. Moscow. One of the closest associates of Alexei Navalny. He participated in the election of State Duma deputies in 2016. He is charged under Art. 159 (4) of the Criminal Code ("Fraud committed by an organised group or on an especially large scale", up to 10 years imprisonment) in the case of fundraising for Yandex-wallet in support of Moscow mayoral candidate Alexei Navalny (2013 case). He was under recognizance not to leave until on February 1, 2021 there was selected a preventive measure in the form of a ban on certain actions (in fact, house arrest) in connection with the charge of committing a crime under Art. 33 (4), Art. 236 (1) of the Criminal Code ("Violation of Sanitary and Epidemiological Rules"), due to calls to come to peaceful protests on January 23, 2021. On February 8, the Memorial human rights center recognized him as a political prisoner. On March 17, it became known about the reclassification of the criminal case. On April 26, the court lighten the ban on certain actions, allowing leaving the premises for 12 hours instead of 2 hours, without limiting the territory. He was detained on January 23, 2021. On January 26, the court arrested him for seven days under Art. 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing").

38. Sergey Mitrokhin. Moscow. Deputy of the Moscow City Duma (Yabloko), member of the federal political committee of the Yabloko party, deputy of the first three convocations of the State Duma of Russia. March 12, 2021 Sergey Mitrokhin was detained and delivered to the Tver police department. On March 18, the court of first instance issued an indictment under Art. 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") and imposed a fine of 300 thousand rubles. On March 29, Mitrokhin was detained and taken to court again under Art. 20.2 (8) for attending a picket at the Federation Council on March 17. Mitrokhin claims he did not participate in the picket, he was only at a distance.

39. Oleg Mikhailov. The first secretary of the Communist Party in Komi, a deputy of the State Council of the Komi Republic, an ex-candidate for governor in 2020. The STOP-SHIES coalition supported his possible nomination as a candidate for State Duma deputies. On May 12, 2021, the Syktyvkar City Court found Oleg Mikhailov guilty under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") and fined 75 thousand rubles for meeting with voters on August 15, 2020 (during the campaign for the election of the governor). On May 15, Oleg Mikhailov was found guilty again under Art. 20.2 (2) and fined 20 thousand rubles for the fact that after a protest action on April 7, accompanied by several dozen Syktyvkars, he took the resolution to the building of the head of Komi's administration.

40. Irina Norman. Sverdlovsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Yekaterinburg. On February 1, 2021, the Leninsky District Court of Yekaterinburg appointed Irina Norman 10 days of administrative arrest, despite the diagnosed disease which does not allow to be detained - epilepsy, for calling for participation in a protest action in support of Alexei Navalny under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing").

41. Ruslan Nurtdinov. Bashkortostan Republic. Public figure, defender of the shikhan Kushtau. On January 23, 2021, the Ufa police in detained Ruslan Nurtdinov after participating in a protest action in support of Alexei Navalny. On January 25, the Kirov District Court of Ufa arrested him for seven days under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On March 13, 2021, a protocol was drawn up on Nurtdinov under the article on "undesirable organization" (Article 20.33 of the Administrative Offences Code) for participating in the Forum of Municipal Deputies. On April 21, 2021, the police detained him for Art. 20.2 (8). He was charged with calling for an unauthorized protest on April 21 in defense of Alexei Navalny. On April 22, the court appointed him 8 days of arrest.

42. Vadim Ostanin. Altai Krai. Ex-coordinator of Navalny's Headquarter* in Barnaul, Yabloko calls him its potential candidate for the election of deputies of the Altai Regional Legislative Assembly in 2021. On January 23, 2021, Vadim Ostanin was arrested by the Oktyabrsky District Court of Barnaul for 10 days (Article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"), although he was detained before the protest action.

43. Andrei Pivovarov. St. Petersburg/Moscow. Ex-Executive Director of Otkrytaya Rossia (Open Russia)**. On September 4, 2020, the Tverskoy District Court of Moscow decided to arrest Andrei Pivovarov for 14 days under Article 20.2 (3) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") for a post published on social networks announcing a protest action to collect signatures under a class action lawsuit against amendments to the Constitution on July 15 on Pushkinskaya Square in Moscow. On September 18, the Meshchansky court of Moscow again arrested the politician for 10 days, finding him guilty of organizing a mass event without giving notice (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). The protocol was drawn up for the post of July 1, where he called on opponents of amendments to the Constitution to go to Pushkin Square. For the protest action in support of Alexei Navalny on January 31, the Izmailovsky District Court of Moscow arrested him under Art. 19.3 (1) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Failure to comply with the requirements of a police officer") for ten days, under Art. 20.2 (8) (repeated violation) - for 29 days. On March 13, he was detained at the Forum of Municipal Deputies, a protocol was drawn up under Art. 20.33 of the Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization"). On April 12, a protocol was drawn upon him under Art. 20.33 for the supply of Open Russia** medical masks and protective suits to the ambulance station. On May 31, 2021, Andrei Pivovarov was detained at Pulkovo Airport when boarding a flight to Warsaw and transferred to Krasnodar. A criminal case has been opened against him under Art. 284.1 of the Criminal Code ("Cooperation with an undesirable organization"). The court decided to arrest him for two months.

44. Victor Rau. Altai Krai. A public figure, he was a candidate for the election of State Duma deputies in 2016, for the election of the governor of the Altai Krai in 2018. For the protest action on December 5, 2020 in support of Khabarovsk protesters and Sergey Furgal, Viktor Rau was fined 20 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). For the protest in support of Alexei Navalny in Barnaul on January 23, 2021, he was fined 10 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (6.1) Administrative Offences Code. January 31, 2021 was arrested for 6 days under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code for participating in the protest in support of Alexei Navalny on January 31. For the March 2 picket, he was arrested for 12 days under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On April 17, he was detained for wearing the mask of "Putin to resignation", the police informed him of the initiation of a criminal case under Art. 212.1 of the Criminal Code ("Repeated violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On April 28, he was searched - information carriers, a phone, and 65 posters were removed; after he was being questioned, he was released on his own recognizance.

45. Maxim Reznik. Member of the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg, representative of the "Growth Party". In March 2021, Reznik was detained in Moscow at the Municipal Russia forum. On June 17, 2021, he was detained as a suspect in a narcotic drug case against his nephew Ivan Dorofeev, a search was carried out. He is going to be charged under Art. 228 (1) of the Criminal Code ("Illegal narcotic drug trafficking").

46. Alexander Rogozhkin. Penza Oblast. Deputy of the City Duma of Penza (Communist Party). On June 14, 2020, the police detained Alexander Rogozhkin when he glued leaflets to an ad stand at a public transport stop on Kirov Street. According to him, the leaflets called to come and vote against the amendments to the Constitution, and the police detained him for this but they drew up a protocol under another article. As a result, he was charged with Art. 20.6 (1) Administrative Offences Code ("Failure to comply with the rules of conduct in case of an emergency or threat of its occurrence"). On December 11, 2020, the Leninsky District Court of Penza appointed him 160 hours of compulsory work due to participation in single pickets against raising prices for public transport on November 5 (article 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code, repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On February 25, 2021, Alexander Rogozhkin was detained when he came to the special detention center to visit his assistant. Before the trial, the deputy was in jail. A protocol was drawn up on Alexander Rogozhkin under Art. 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On February 26, 2021, the Leninsky District Court of Penza arrested him for 20 days. The reason for bringing the deputy of the Penza City Council to justice was a leaflet posted on VKontakte social network with an invitation to the protest on February 23.

47. Eugene Roizman. Sverdlovsk Oblast. Independent politician. Ex-deputy of the State Duma of Russia and ex-head of Yekaterinburg. He declared his desire to go to the State Duma but then refused. He was detained in Moscow at the Forum of Municipal Deputies on March 13, 2021, and delivered to the police department. He was one of the main speakers of the United Democrats conference, the police entered the hall during his speech. A protocol was drawn up under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization"). On March 16, an administrative case was opened against Yevgeny Roizman for participating in protests in support of Navalny on January 23 and 31. The police met him at the Koltsovo airport and handed over the decision on the case under Art. 20.5 (5) Administrative OffencesCode ("Failure to Meet the Demands of an Emergency State"). According to the Administrative Offense Code, there are no parts in this article, and the state of emergency in Russia has not been announced. On March 26, the Oktyabrsky District Court of Yekaterinburg appointed Roizman two fines of 20 thousand rubles in the case of an administrative offense under article 20.2 (5) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the procedure for holding a meeting") for January 23 and 31. On April 9, a magistrate of the judicial section No. 299 of Moscow transferred to Yekaterinburg an administrative offence case against Roizman, who was drawn up with the protocol for participating in the United Democrats forum. Materials under Article 20.33 of the Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization") were transferred to the judicial section No. 8 of the Verkh-Isetsky District Court of Yekaterinburg.

48. Diana Rudakova. Tambov Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Tambov. On January 27, 2021, she was arrested for 15 days under Art. 20.2 (3) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") for a protest action on January 23 in support of Alexei Navalny.

49. Vladimir Ryzhkov. Altai Krai/Moscow. The politician, an ex-deputy of the four convocations of the State Duma of Russia, again ran in 2016 from the Yabloko party. He announced his intention to run for office in 2021 at the by-election of deputies of the Moscow City Duma. On April 22, the Khamovnichesky Court of Moscow fined Vladimir Ryzhkov 20 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Organization or holding a public event without notice of a public event in accordance with the established procedure"). The reason for compiling the protocol was a repost of information about an unauthorized protest action on April 21, which Ryzhkov posted from the website of the Ekho Moskvy radio station.

50. Alexander Ryabchuk. Rostov Oblast. Former teacher, the winner of the municipal contest "Teacher of the Year 2020", was dismissed after participating in actions in support of Navalny. He announced his desire to participate in the elections of State Duma deputies. On February 4, 2021, Ryabchuk was searched at 7 in the morning. After that, he was assigned five days of administrative arrest under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") for participating in a march in support of Alexei Navalny on January 23. On March 13, a protocol was drawn upon him under Art. 20.33 of the Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization") for participating in the Forum of Municipal Deputies in Moscow. On May 19, he was fined five thousand rubles.

51. Zakhar Sarapulov. Irkutsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Irkutsk. January 23, 2021, he was detained under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding a meeting"), was arrested for 10 days. On February 20, 2021, a protocol was drawn upon him for 2020 actions in support of Belarus and a meeting on October 10 (art. 20.2 of the Administrative Offences Code).

52. Mikhail Svetov. Moscow. Chairman of the Civil Society movement, one of the former leaders of the unregistered Libertarian Party of Russia (LPR). On April 24, 2021, Mikhail Svetov was searched in a case opened in 2019 under Art. 135 of the Criminal Code ("Depraved actions against persons under the age of 16"). On April 26, the Savelovsky District Court arrested him for 9 days and fined him 30 thousand rubles in the case of calls for protests on January 23 and April 21 (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ).

53. Andrey Skultetsky. Altai Krai. Coordinator of the Barnaul branch of "Vesna" movement. Yabloko calls him a potential candidate in the elections of the Altai Regional Legislative Assembly in 2021. On January 23, 2021, Andrei Skultetsky was detained at a protest in support of Alexei Navalny, he was arrested for 10 days under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding a meeting").

54. Alexander Smirnov. Penza Oblast. The head of the Communist Party in the Penza City Duma. On February 19, 2021, Alexander Smirnov was detained near his house, and the next day the Leninsky District Court of Penza appointed him seven days of administrative arrest for organizing a public event without notice (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). The reason was the unauthorized action "For Russia without oligarchs and palaces" which was scheduled for February 23.

55. Lyubov Sobol. Moscow. One of the federal leaders of the political project of Alexei Navalny. She planned to run for the State Duma of Russia. On December 21, 2020, Lyubov Sobol arrived at the address of the residence of Konstantin Kudryavtsev (one of the alleged poisoners of Alexei Navalny) in order to ask him questions. In her stream, she said that she was able to enter one of the neighbouring apartments. On December 24, 2020, the Investigative Committee opened a criminal case under Art. 139 (2) of the Criminal Code ("Violation of the inviolability of the home"), Lyubov Sobol initially was a witness. On February 11, Sobol was finally charged. She is under house arrest. On January 22, 2021, the Simonovsky court of Moscow imposed an administrative fine on Lyubov Sobol in the amount of 250,000 rubles under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On January 24, Sobol was fined another 20 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (5) Administrative Offences Code. On February 4, she was fined one thousand rubles under Art. 19.3 (1) Administrative Offences Code for disobeying the police during a meeting with Alexei Navalny at Vnukovo Airport on January 17. On April 26, the Simonovsky court of Moscow decided Sobol guilty under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") and fined her 300,000 rubles. The maximum fine was given for participating in the morning broadcast of Ekho Moskvy radio station, in which neither the place nor the time of the protest in support of Navalny was discussed.

56. Valery Solovey. Kostroma Oblast. An independent politician who announced his intention to run for the election of State Duma deputies in 2021. On December 7, 2020, the Oktyabrsky District Court of St. Petersburg arrested Valery Solovey for 10 days. He was charged with committing an offence under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Organization of a mass simultaneous stay and (or) movement of citizens in public places").

57. Oleg Stepanov. Moscow. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Moscow. He is accused of committing a crime under Art. 33 (4) and Art. 236 (1) of the Criminal Code ("Incitement to Violation of Sanitary and Epidemiological Rules"), due to calls to come to peaceful protests on January 23, 2021. February 8 he was recognized as a political prisoner by the "Memorial" human rights center***. He has been under house arrest since January 29, 2021. On January 23, he was also sentenced to five days of administrative arrest under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing").

58. Anton Strunin. Penza Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Penza. January 23, 2021 he was detained in the first minutes of an unauthorized protest in support of Navalny. He received five days of arrest under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On April 12, 2021, it became known that the Penza Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia demanded 883,634 rubles from the organizers of the protest in support of Navalny on January, 23 for additional payments to police officers working on the protest and spent gasoline. The corresponding lawsuit was filed in the Pervomaisky district court of the city. The defendants in the case are Anton Strunin and local resident Yuri Tsepaev. The lawsuit says that on January 23 they organized an "unauthorized in the prescribed manner public event", where participated approximately 750 people.

59. Evgeny Stupin. Moscow. Member of the Moscow City Duma (Communist Party). On March 30, 2021, Yevgeny Stupin was convicted under Art. 20.2 (5) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"), and was fined 20 thousand rubles.

60. Roman Tregubov. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Nizhny Novgorod. At the end of January, Roman Tregubov was arrested for five days for organizing a protest on January 31 (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). After that, a video appeared on the SILOVIKI Telegram channel in which Tregubov says that he does not agree with the policy of Navalny's Headquarter*, renounces his authority, and urged people not to protest on January 31. As Tregubov's lawyer Alexander Karavaev said on his Facebook account, the security forces, under the threat of initiating a criminal case, forced him to record this video message. On February 25, 2021, the Nizhny Novgorod Investigative Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia opened a criminal case against Tregubov under Art. 236 (1) of the Criminal Code ("Violation of Sanitary and Epidemiological Rules").

61. Sergey Ukhov. Perm Krai. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Perm. February 19, 2021, Sergey Ukhov registered as a candidate for the competition for the election of the head of Perm. On January 23, 2021, he was detained when leaving his house, he received 5 days of arrest under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing").

62. Ksenia Fadeeva. Tomsk Oblast. Independent deputy of the City Duma of Tomsk. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Tomsk. She was fined for both January actions for 25 and 20 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On March 13, Fadeeva was detained at the Forum of Municipal Deputies in Moscow under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("implementation of the activities of an undesirable organization"). April 26 she was fined 10 thousand rubles for participation in the activities of an undesirable organization (Article 20.33).

63. Andrei Fateev. Tomsk Oblast. Independent deputy of the City Duma of Tomsk. On January 23, 2021, he was fined 25 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code for organizing an unauthorized action in support of Navalny, and on February 1 - 20 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (1) of the Administrative Offences Code for participating in a similar action that took place on January 31. On March 13, Fateev was detained at the Forum of Municipal Deputies in Moscow and brought to administrative responsibility under Art. 20.33 Administrative Offences Code ("participation of the activities of an undesirable organization"). After the action on April 21, Andrei Fateev was arrested for 30 days for repeated violation of the rules for organizing the meeting (article 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code).

64. Irina Fatyanova. St. Petersburg. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in St. Petersburg. On January 23, 2021, Irina Fatyanova was arrested for six days under Art. 20.2 Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") for a protest in support of Alexei Navalny on January 23. On January 29, she was arrested again (for 10 days) for organizing the same protest (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). On April 13, a protocol was drawn up under Art. 20.2 (2) for organizing the protest on January 31.

65. Galina Filchenko. Moscow. Municipal deputy. On March 19, 2020, Galina Filchenko was detained and convicted under Art. 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") for participating in a protest in support of Alexei Navalny on January 23. She was fined 150 thousand rubles.

66. Sergey Furgal. Khabarovsk Krai. Ex-deputy of the State Duma of Russia, ex-governor of the Khabarovsk Krai. Sergei Furgal was detained by special forces of the FSB of Russia on the morning of July 9, 2020, and transferred to Moscow. Furgal was detained for an investigation into a multi-episode case against organized crime groups involved, according to investigators, in committing especially serious crimes against the life and health of entrepreneurs in the Khabarovsk Krai and the Amur Oblast.

67. Ketevan Kharaidze. The municipal deputy of the Tver district of Moscow. In May 2021, she announced her intention to run for the election of deputies of the State Duma of Russia. She was detained on the night of June 18, 2021, by employees of the Investigative Committee after an hour-long search of her apartment (there are no more details yet).

68. Dmitry Tsibirev. Saratov Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Saratov. On January 22, 2021, on the eve of the protest in support of Navalny, Dmitry Tsibirev was detained for its organizing (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). The court sent Tsibirev under administrative arrest for two days. On January 30, a day before the new protest, Tsibirev was again detained and arrested for 10 days (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code). On the same day, his apartment was searched in connection with a criminal case that was opened after the protest on January 23. The case was initiated due to a violation of epidemiological rules during an unauthorized action on January 23 (article 236 91) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation). At the moment, the prosecution, in this case, has not yet been brought to Dmitry Tsibirev. On April 21, 2021, the police detained him during a protest in support of political prisoners. On April 22, the court arrested him for 20 days under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing").

69. Sergey Tsukasov. Moscow. Municipal deputy. On June 16, 2020, the Tagansky Court of Moscow fined Sergey Tsukasov 20 thousand rubles under Art. 20.2 (5) Administrative Offences Code ("Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing") for a protest in support of Ilya Azar on May 29. On March 19, 2021, Sergei Tsukasov was assigned 10 days of arrest under article 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code (repeated violation) due to a protest in support of Navalny on January 31.

70. Lilia Chanysheva. Bashkortostan. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Ufa. March 11, 2021, she announced her desire to run for the elections to the City Council of Ufa. On January 24, Liliya Chanysheva was arrested for five days for calling for participation in an unauthorized protest in support of Alexei Navalny (article 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ). On February 1, 2021, the Kirovsky District Court of Ufa appointed Chanysheva 10 days of administrative arrest under Art. 20.2 (2) Administrative Offences Code for the protest on January 31.

71. Alexey Schwarts. Kurgan Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Kurgan. He was detained on January 22, 2021 - on the eve of the protest in support of Alexei Navalny - and received 30 days of arrest under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On February 20, the Kurgan City Court appointed Schwarts, another administrative arrest. This time, the court punished the activist for involving minors in unauthorized protest under Art. 20.2 (8) Administrative Offences Code (repeated violation). On March 4, Schwarts became a defendant in a new criminal case under Art. 138 of the Criminal Code ("Violation of the Secrecy of Correspondence, Telephone Conversations, Postal, Telegraphic and Other Messages"). The case was initiated due to an investigation into possible fraud in the election on amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The video presents conversations recordings in which allegedly high-ranking officials of the Kurgan Oblast getting agreement on how to get the necessary election results. April 20 he was grossly detained. The court issued two decisions against Schwarts. He was found guilty of committing an offense under Art. 20.2 (8) of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation (repeated "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding a meeting, rally, demonstration, procession or picketing"), and he was assigned administrative arrest for 30 days per action, which took place a day after his detention. Schwartz was also found guilty under Part 1 of Art. 19.3 Administrative Offences Code ("Failure to comply with the requirements of a police officer"), he was sentenced by the court to arrest for 12 days.

72. Lev Schlosberg. Pskov/Moscow. Member of the Pskov Regional Assembly, member of the federal political committee of the Yabloko party. He said that he was considering the possibility of running to the State Duma in one of the districts of Moscow. On January 26, 2021, the court fined Lev Schlosberg 20 thousand rubles due to the fact that on January 23 he invited the protesters to "go to Hyde Park by an organized group." He was found guilty under Art. 20.2 (2) of the Administrative Offences Code ("Organization or holding a public event without notice").

73. Konstantin Yankauskas. Moscow. Municipal deputy, an independent politician. He is charged under Art. 159 (4) of the Criminal Code ("Fraud committed by an organised group on an especially large scale", up to 10 years imprisonment) in the 2013 case of raising funds for Yandex-wallets in support of Moscow mayoral candidate Alexei Navalny. In February 2021, he became a suspect in connection with the charge of committing a crime under Art. 33 (4), Art. 236 (1) of the Criminal Code ("Incitement to violation of sanitary and epidemiological rules", up to 2 years imprisonment), due to calls to come to peaceful protests on January 23, 2021. He has been under house arrest since February 9, 2021.

74. Artem Yaumbayev. Chelyabinsk Oblast. Ex-coordinator of Navalny Headquarter* in Chelyabinsk. January 23, 2021, he was detained at the protest, received 9 days of arrest (article 20.2 92) "Violation of the established procedure for organizing or holding an assembly, meeting, demonstration, marches or picketing"). On February 12, Artem Yaumbayev was detained in Magnitogorsk, where he came to his mother. He was questioned as a suspect in the case of road closures under Art. 267 (1) of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation ("Putting out of Commission Transport Vehicles or Communications"). During the protest on January 31, he was in a special detention center and could not take part in it. His girlfriend Antonina Arefieva was questioned as a witness.

75. Ilya Yashin. Moscow. The head of the municipal district "Krasnoselsky." He announced his intention to run for the election of deputies of the Moscow City Duma. On February 1, 2020, the Izmailovsky Court of Moscow appointed Ilya Yashin 10 days of administrative arrest for disobeying a police officer at a protest on January 31 in support of Alexei Navalny under Art. 19.3 Administrative Offences Code. In addition, he was fined 20 thousand rubles for participation in an unauthorized protest (article 20.2 (5) of the Administrative Offences Code). On March 13, he was detained at the Forum of Municipal Deputies, a protocol was drawn up under Art. 20.33 of the Administrative Offences Code ("participation of the activities of an undesirable organization").

* Recognized by the Russian authorities as extremist organizations and their activities are prohibited in the Russian Federation.

* * The Prosecutor General's Office recognized the British structures Open Russia Civic Movement and Otkrytaya Rossia as undesirable organizations. The Russian Open Russia announced the termination of its activities due to fears of persecution of activists.

* * * Recognized by the Russian authorities as a non-profit organization acting as a foreign agent.

* * * * Recognized by the Russian authorities as a foreign media outlet acting as a foreign agent.

Authors of the analytical report:

Stanislav Andreychuk, Grigory Melkonyants, Denis Shadrin and regional long-term observers.